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REVIEW
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 119-129

Endoscopic ultrasound-guided bilio-pancreatic drainage


Endoscopic Unit, Paoli-Calmettes Institute, 232 Bd St-Marguerite, 13273 Marseille cedex 9, France

Correspondence Address:
Marc Giovannini
Endoscopic Unit, Paoli-Calmettes Institute, 232 Bd St-Marguerite, 13273 Marseille cedex 9
France
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.7178/eus.03.002

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The echoendoscopic biliary drainage is an option to treat obstructive jaundices when endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatog­raphy (ERCP) drainage fails. These procedures compose alternative methods to the side of surgery and percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage, and it was only possible by the continuous development and improvement of echoendoscopes and accessories. The development of linear sectorial array echoendoscopes in early 1990 brought a new approach to diagnostic and therapeutic dimen­sion on echoendoscopy capabilities, opening the possibility to perform punction over direct ultrasonografic view. Despite of the high success rate and low morbidity of biliary drainage obtained by ERCP, difficulty could be found at the presence of stent tumor ingrown, tumor gut compression, periampullary diverticula and anatomic variation. The echoendoscopic technique starts perform­ing punction and contrast of the left biliary tree. When performed from gastric wall, the access is made through hepatic segment III. From duodenum, direct common bile duct punction. Diathermic dilatation of the puncturing tract is required using a 6-Fr cys­tostome and a plastic or metal stent is introducted. The techincal success of hepaticogastrostomy is near 98%, and complications are present in 20%: pneumoperitoneum, choleperitoneum, infection and stent disfunction. To prevent bile leakage, we have used the 2-stent techniques. The first stent introduced was a long uncovered metal stent (8 or 10 cm) and inside this first stent a second fully covered stent of 6 cm was delivered to bridge the bile duct and the stomach. Choledochoduodenostomy overall success rate is 92%, and described complications include, in frequency order, pneumoperitoneum and focal bile peritonitis, present in 14%. By the last 10 years, the technique was especially performed in reference centers, by ERCP experienced groups, and this seems to be a general guideline to safer procedure execution. The ideal approach for pancreatic pseudo-cyst (PPC) puncture combines endos­copy with real time endosonography using an interventional echoendoscope. Several authors have described the use of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) longitudinal scanners for guidance of transmural puncture and drainage procedures. The same technique could be used to access a dilated pancreatic duct in cases in which the duct cannot be drained by conventional ERCP because of complete obstruction.


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