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EUS-guided placement of fiducial markers for image-guided radiotherapy in gastrointestinal tumors: A critical appraisal

1 Digestive Endoscopy Unit, Division of Gastroenterology, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center IRCCS, Rozzano, Italy
2 Department of Gastroenterology, Clinic of Internal Medicine, Colentina Clinical Hospital, Carol Davila University of Medicine, Bucharest, Romania
3 Digestive Endoscopy Unit, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS; Center for Endoscopic Research Therapeutics and Training, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
4 Department of Radiotherapy and Radiosurgery, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, IRCCS, Rozzano, Italy
5 Department of Radiation Oncology, UTMD Anderson Cancer Center Houston, Texas, USA
6 Department Allgemeine Innere Medizin der Kliniken Hirslanden Beau Site, Salem und Permanence, Bern, Switzerland
7 Department of Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition, UTMD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA
8 Department of Gastroenterology/GI Endoscopy, AKH Celle, Academic Teaching Hospital of Medizinische Hochschule, Hannover, Germany

Correspondence Address:
Christoph F Dietrich,
Department Allgemeine Innere Medizin der Kliniken (DAIM) Hirslanden Beau Site, Salem und Permanence, Bern
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/EUS-D-20-00116

PMID: 33666180

We present here a new chapter of the series of papers on how to perform specific EUS techniques. In this manuscript, we discuss on how to perform EUS-guided placement of fiducial markers in gastrointestinal tumors. The aim is to present the scientific evidence of fiducials placement before radiation therapy, including an accurate revision of the literature, to give some advices on the technical approach, and to discuss Pros and Cons from the point of view of gastroenterologists and radiation oncologist.

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