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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
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Differential EUS findings in focal type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer: A proof-of-concept study


1 Pancreato-Biliary Endoscopy and EUS Division, Pancreas Translational and Clinical Research Center, San Raffaele Scientific Institute IRCCS; Pancreas Translational and Clinical Research Center, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Università Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy
2 Pancreato-Biliary Endoscopy and EUS Division, Pancreas Translational and Clinical Research Center, San Raffaele Scientific Institute IRCCS, Milan; Department of Translational and Precision Medicine, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy
3 Pancreato-Biliary Endoscopy and EUS Division, Pancreas Translational and Clinical Research Center, San Raffaele Scientific Institute IRCCS, Milan, Italy
4 Pancreas Translational and Clinical Research Center, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Università Vita-Salute San Raffaele; Unit of Immunology, Rheumatology, Allergy and Rare Diseases (Unirar), San Raffaele Scientific Institute IRCCS, Milan, Italy
5 Division of Pancreatic Surgery, Pancreas Translational and Clinical Research Center, San Raffaele Scientific Institute IRCCS, Milan, Italy
6 Department of Pathology, Pancreas Translational and Clinical Research Center, San Raffaele Scientific Institute IRCCS, Milan, Italy

Correspondence Address:
Matteo Tacelli,
Pancreato-Biliary Endoscopy and EUS Division, Pancreas Translational and Clinical Research Center, San Raffaele Scientific Institute IRCCS, Via Olgettina 60, Milan
Italy
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/EUS-D-21-00111

PMID: 35142701

Background and Objectives: Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) often mimics pancreatic cancer (PC), particularly if presenting as a focal lesion. EUS may orient the differential diagnosis between them. This study aims to identify EUS findings that might be useful to differentiate type 1 focal autoimmune pancreatitis (f-AIP1) and PC. Materials and Methods: F-AIP1 and PC patients were retrospectively collected, matched, and compared. EUS findings considered were: focal mass echogenicity, loss of lobularity, distal atrophy, peripancreatic hypoechoic margins (PHM), pancreatic duct dilation, duct-penetrating sign (DPS), pancreatic/common bile duct thickened walls (PD/CBD-TW), and vessel infiltration (VI). Elastography findings were also recorded. Variables with a P < 0.05 at univariate analysis were included in logistic multiple regression. Results: Fifteen patients with f-AIP and 60 with PC were studied. FE was hypoechoic in all patients from both groups. PHM was observed in 40% of f-AIP1 cases but not in PC ones (P < 0.001). DPS was found in 10/15 (66.7%) f-AIP1 and in 7/60 (11.7%) PC patients (P < 0.001). PD-TW and CBD-TW were observed in 66.7%/60% f-AIP1 cases and in 6.7%/13.6% PC patients, respectively (P < 0.001 for both comparisons). Pancreatic masses were significantly different at EUS elastography (elastic respectively in 71.4% f-AIP1 and 3.8% PC, P < 0.001). VI was suspected in 20% of f-AIPs and 85% of PCs (P < 0.001). At multiple regression, PD-TW, CBD-TW, elastic pattern, and the absence of VI independently supported a diagnosis of f-AIP1. Conclusions: Our results suggest that EUS findings deserve consideration in the diagnostic workup of AIP to improve the differential diagnosis with PC.


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    -  Tacelli M
    -  Zaccari P
    -  Petrone MC
    -  Della Torre E
    -  Lanzillotta M
    -  Falconi M
    -  Doglioni C
    -  Capurso G
    -  Arcidiacono PG
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