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REVIEW ARTICLE
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Current landscape of therapeutic EUS: Changing paradigms in gastroenterology practice


1 Pancreatobiliary Endoscopy and Endosonography Division, Pancreas Translational and Clinical Research Center, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy
2 Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, University of Leuven, Leuven; Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Imelda General Hospital, Bonheiden, Belgium
3 Digestive Endoscopy Unit, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli, IRCCS; Center for Endoscopic Research Therapeutics and Training, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
4 Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Amsterdam UMC, AGEM Institute, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
5 Department of Internal Medicine, Carol Davila University of Medicine, Bucharest, Romania
6 Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA
7 Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

Correspondence Address:
Paolo Giorgio Arcidiacono,
Via Olgettina 60, 20132, Milan
Italy
Schalk W van der Merwe,
Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and HPB Medicine. Department of Chronic Diseases, Metabolism and Aging, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, University of Leuven, Leuven
Belgium
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/EUS-D-21-00177

PMID: 36124531

Therapeutic EUS has witnessed exponential growth in the last decade, but it has been considered investigational until recently. An increasing body of good-quality evidence is now demonstrating clear advantages over established alternatives, adding therapeutic EUS to management algorithms of complex hepato-pancreato-biliary (HPB) and gastrointestinal (GI) conditions. In this review, the available evidence and clinical role of therapeutic EUS in established and evolving applications will be discussed. A Graphical Summary for each scenario will provide (1) technical steps, (2) anatomical sketch, (3) best-supporting evidence, and (4) role in changing current and future GI practice. Therapeutic EUS has accepted well-established applications such as drainage of symptomatic peripancreatic fluid collections, biliary drainage in failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, and treatment of acute cholecystitis in unfit-for-surgery patients. In addition, good-quality evidence on several emerging indications (e.g., treatment of gastric outlet obstruction, local ablation of pancreatic solid lesions, etc.) is promising. Specific emphasis will be given to how these technical innovations have changed management paradigms and algorithms and expanded the possibilities of gastroenterologists to provide therapeutic solutions to old and emerging clinical needs. Therapeutic EUS is cementing its role in everyday practice, radically changing the treatment of different HPB diseases and other conditions (e.g., GI obstruction). The development of dedicated accessories and increased training opportunities will expand the ability of gastroenterologists to deliver highly effective yet minimally invasive therapies, potentially translating into a better quality of life, especially for oncological and fragile patients.


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    -  Vanella G
    -  Bronswijk M
    -  Arcidiacono PG
    -  Larghi A
    -  Wanrooij RL
    -  de Boer YS
    -  Rimbas M
    -  Khashab M
    -  van der Merwe SW
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