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   2014| October-December  | Volume 3 | Issue 4  
    Online since November 12, 2014

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EUS-guided celiac plexus interventions in pancreatic cancer pain: An update and controversies for the endosonographer
Leticia Perondi Luz, Mohammad Ali Al-Haddad, John A DeWitt
October-December 2014, 3(4):213-220
Patients with pancreatic cancer (pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma [PDAC]) can develop abdominal pain that can be debilitating. Celiac plexus neurolysis (CPN) is a chemical ablation of the celiac plexus that can be used to treat pain caused by pancreatic malignancy. It can be performed by an anterior or posterior approach, and also can be done percutaneously or under guidance of transabdominal ultrasound, computed tomography, intra-operatively or most recently under linear endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guidance (EUS-CPN). EUS is well-suited for identification of the celiac plexus due to the close proximity of the gastric wall to the origin of the celiac artery. EUS-CPN is now widely practiced, and different EUS approaches have been developed in order to improve the efficacy of this technique. Our objective is to review the use of EUS-CPN in PDAC, including a description of different techniques, review of its efficacy, predictors of pain response, and describe its limitations and safety, as well as new developments.
  4,649 938 13
Endoscopic ultrasound in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer
Sara Colella, Peter Vilmann, Lars Konge, Paul Frost Clementsen
October-December 2014, 3(4):205-212
We reviewed the role of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) and esophageal ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in the pretherapeutic assessment of patients with proven or suspected lung cancer. EUS-FNA and EBUS-TBNA have been shown to have a good diagnostic accuracy in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. In the future, these techniques in combination with positron emission tomography/computed tomographic may replace surgical staging in patients with suspected and proven lung cancer, but until then surgical staging remains the gold standard for adequate preoperative evaluation.
  3,139 864 13
Differentiating primary pancreatic lymphoma from adenocarcinoma using endoscopic ultrasound characteristics and flow cytometry: A case-control study
Eric A Johnson, Mark E Benson, Nalini Guda, Patrick R Pfau, Terrence J Frick, Deepak V Gopal
October-December 2014, 3(4):221-225
Background: Primary pancreatic lymphoma (PPL) is a rare pancreatic neoplasm that is difficult to diagnose. PPL has a vastly different prognosis and treatment regimen than other pancreatic tumors; therefore, accurate diagnosis is vital. In this article, we describe the characteristic presentation, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) features, and the role of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in the diagnosis of PPL compared with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective case-control study of 11 patients diagnosed with PPL via EUS between 2002 and 2011. The clinical and EUS features of the cases were then compared with age-matched controls with adenocarcinoma in a 1:3 ratio. Results: There were 11 patients with PPL and 33 with adenocarcinoma. At last follow-up, 7 of 11 PPL patients were alive, and 3 of 33-adenocarcinoma patients were alive (P < 0.001). The most common presenting symptoms for PPL were pain 73%, weight loss 45%, and jaundice 18%, while patients with adenocarcinoma presented with pain 52% (P = 0.3), weight loss 30% (P = 0.47) and jaundice 76% (P = 0.001). The EUS appearance was similar in the two groups in that ultrasound imaging of the pancreas lesions tended to be hypoechoic and heterogenous, but the PPL group was more likely to have peripancreatic lymphadenopathy (LAD) (64% vs. 18%, P = 0.008) and were larger (4.8 cm × 5.3 cm vs. 3.2 cm × 3.1 cm, P < 0.001). The PPL group was less likely to have vascular invasion (18% vs. 55%, P = 0.045) and less likely to be found in the head of the pancreas (36% vs. 85%, P = 0.004). FNA and cytology (without flow cytometry [FC]) made the diagnosis in 28% of PPL patients compared with 91% of adenocarcinoma patients (P = 0.002). In the PPL group, 7 of 11 FNA samples were sent for FC. If FC was added, then the diagnosis of PPL was increased to 100%. Conclusions: Compared with adenocarcinoma, pancreatic lymphoma has a better prognosis, is less likely to present with jaundice and less likely to have vascular invasion. PPL is more likely to be located outside the head of the pancreas and to include peripancreatic LAD, and is less likely to be diagnosed with cytology. The diagnostic accuracy of FNA for PPL is improved greatly with the addition of FC.
  2,338 305 8
Lymph node characteristics of sarcoidosis with endobronchial ultrasound
Mehmet Akif Ozgul, Erdogan Cetinkaya, Gamze Kirkil, Guler Ozgul, Yasin Abul, Murat Acat, Hilal Onaran, Halide Nur Urer, Nuri Tutar, H Erhan Dincer
October-December 2014, 3(4):232-237
Background: Sonographic features of lymph nodes on endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) have been shown to be useful in prediction of malignancy in mediastinum and hilum. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of morphologic features of mediastinal and/or hilar lymph nodes obtained by EBUS in patients with sarcoidosis. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 224 patients with mediastinal/hilar lymph node enlargements who underwent EBUS for diagnostic purpose. The lymph nodes were characterized based on the EBUS images as follows: (1) Size; based on short-axis dimension, <1 cm or ≥1 cm, (2) shape; oval or round, (3) margin; distinct or indistinct, (4) echogenicity; homogeneous or heterogeneous, (5) presence or absence of central hilar structure, and (6) presence or absence of granular (sandpaper) appearance. Results: One hundred (24.4%) nodes exhibited indistinct margins while 309 (75.6%) had distinct margins. One hundred and ninety nine (48.7%) nodes were characterized as homogeneous, and 210 (51.3%) nodes as heterogeneous. Granular appearance was observed in 130 (31.8%) lymph nodes. The presence of granules in lymph nodes on EBUS had the highest specificity (99.3%) for the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Logistic regression analysis revealed the finding of distinct margin alone as an independent predictive factor for the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Conclusions: The presence of granular appearance in lymph nodes by EBUS had the highest specificity (99.3%) for the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Lymph nodes having distinct margins tend to suggest sarcoidosis.
  2,280 309 12
A new lumen-apposing metal stent for endoscopic transluminal drainage of peripancreatic fluid collections
Piotr S Wrobel, Jeremy Kaplan, Ali A Siddiqui
October-December 2014, 3(4):203-204
  2,076 466 6
Endoscopic ultrasound-assisted direct peritoneal visualization with a small-caliber scope: A proof of concept study in a swine model
Rei Suzuki, Manoop S Bhutani, Dongsuk Shin, Atsushi Irisawa, Jason B Fleming, Rebecca Richards-Kortum, Hiromasa Ohira
October-December 2014, 3(4):226-231
Background: Laparoscopic and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery techniques can diagnose peritoneal findings that suggest tumor cell dissemination. However, they have not been incorporated into routine practice, mainly owing to their complexity. To develop a minimally invasive endoscopic technique for the diagnosis of peritoneal findings, we conducted feasibility study using an acute swine model. Materials and Methods: This study involved six domestic pigs. Trans-gastric access to the peritoneal cavity was performed utilizing an endoscopic ultrasound fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) technique. After dilation of the needle hole with a biliary dilatation catheter and balloon, a small-caliber scope was inserted into the peritoneal cavity. Peritoneal images were obtained with the scope and a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME). Main outcome measurements were technical feasibility and time needed to access the peritoneal cavity. Results: Direct visualization of the peritoneum was successful in all six pigs and gained access to the gross appearance of the peritoneal cavity. HRME imaging with topical contrast agent also obtained reasonable quality images representing nuclei of the peritoneal mesothelium. Average operation time from the initiation of EUS-FNA to acquiring peritoneal images was 26.5 min (range 15-40 min). Autopsy found no damage to the adjacent organs, and stomach wall defects were tightly closed with hemostasis clips. Conclusion: EUS-assisted direct peritoneal visualization with small-caliber scope is technically feasible. HRME may assist in the diagnosis of findings on the peritoneum.
  1,931 335 1
Leiomyosarcoma of the pulmonary artery diagnosed by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration
Kush Modi, Samjot Dhillon, Abhishek Kumar, Lourdes Ylagan, Kassem Harris
October-December 2014, 3(4):249-251
Leiomyosarcoma of the pulmonary vasculature is an extremely rare condition that has not been previously diagnosed by endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) bronchoscopy. We present the case of a 43-year-old white male with a history of leiomyosarcoma who was diagnosed with pulmonary embolism 2 years ago. As the filling defects on follow-up chest computed tomography continued to worsen despite anticoagulation, EBUS-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) of the right pulmonary artery lesion was safely and successfully performed. Cytopathological examination revealed the "thrombus" to be metastatic leiomyosarcoma. In experienced hands, and carefully selected cases, EBUS-TBNA seems to be a safe and effective in diagnosing thoracic endovascular lesions.
  1,796 228 6
Echo-endoscopic analysis of variceal hemodynamics in patient with isolated gastric varices
HIdemichi Imamura, Atsushi Irisawa, Goro Shibukawa, Tadayuki Takagi, Takuto Hikichi, Katsutoshi Obara, Hiromasa Ohira
October-December 2014, 3(4):238-244
Background: It is considered that gastric varices (GVs) which have the large form in endoscopic view should be treated because they are regarded as having high blood flow volume and the risky varices of hemorrhage. However, there is no data of the correlation among the endoscopic view, diameter of GV, and blood flow volume in GV. The aim of this study was to investigate whether GV diameter correlates to blood flow volume or not. In addition, the correlation between the endoscopic findings of GVs, patient status, and blood flow volume was assessed. Materials and Methods: In this study, 24 patients were enrolled. Variceal form and its location were observed using flexible GI endoscopes. Assessment of variceal form and location was according to Japanese society of portal hypertension. Then, the GV diameter (the maximum short axis), the GV flow velocity, and the GV flow volume were measured by echo-endoscope with curved linear array or with electronic radial array. Results: Nineteen of 24 enrolled patients were analyzed. There was strong correlation between the GV diameter and the GV flow volume (rs = 0.85, P < 0.01). No significant difference in the GV diameter and the GV flow volume was found between each location. However, there was no significant difference in the GV diameter between each variceal form. In addition, no significant difference was found among Child-Pugh classifications, and in cases associated with or without hepatocelluer carcinoma. Conclusions: Strong correlation was found between GV diameter and flow volume of GV, regardless of the location. However, since there was no significant difference in the GV diameter between each variceal form in endoscopic view, measuring GV diameter is important to understand its hemodynamics for further treatment.
  1,746 257 2
Endoscopic ultrasound-guided insertion of a large diameter fully covered self-expandable metallic stent as rescue therapy for recurrent infected walled off pancreatic necrosis after surgical necrosectomy
Tiing Leong Ang, Andrew Boon Eu Kwek, Kwong Ming Fock, Eng Kiong Teo
October-December 2014, 3(4):245-248
A 39-year-old man developed severe necrotizing gallstone pancreatitis complicated by infected pancreatic necrosis. Surgical necrosectomy was performed to control the on-going sepsis. Subsequently, there was a recurrence of an infected necrotic collection at the site of surgical necrosectomy, in the region of the pancreatic body and tail. He did not respond to conservative treatment with intravenous antibiotics. Pancreatic duct stenting was performed to treat pancreatic duct leak, followed by endoscopic ultrasound guided insertion of a large diameter fully covered self-expandable metallic stent to drain the infected collection. There was rapid and complete clinical recovery.
  1,629 203 2
Gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor and neuroendocrine pancreatic tumor: Always neurofibromatosis?
Lídia Roque Ramos, Pedro Pinto Marques, Joana Nogueira, Maria José Brito
October-December 2014, 3(4):254-255
  1,542 189 1
An uncommon pancreatic mass lesion is leading to recurrent gastrointestinal bleed
Narendra Choudhary, Rajesh Puri, Randhir Sud
October-December 2014, 3(4):252-253
  1,183 169 1